The Conjugate Method

What is the Conjugate Method?

The Conjugate Method is a weekly strength and conditioning training system that decreases physical weakness. It switches through different exercises and physical effort levels to ensure you continuously get as strong and athletic as necessary for whatever objective you set. 

Its success relies on a training hierarchy that constantly rotates stimulus and intensities to increase positive changes to your physical health while reducing injury risk. 

Every week of training acts as an assessment feedback loop by providing objective information showing how strong (Maximal Effort), fast (Dynamic Effort), and athletic (General Physical Preparedness) you are. It also quickly shows your most considerable weakness and implements a plan to bring it up to par via special exercises at a specific volume (Repeated Effort).

Most current information on the Conjugate Method of training, including this article, refers to Louie Simmons's work which combines two training systems. 

Jump to key terms and definitions 


Conjugate Method Training System History 

The two training systems were the Soviet system, which incorporated multiple strategic exercises to advance athletes' training, and the Bulgarian system, where athletes underwent near max-effort movements every workout.

Both of these systems had high success rates when it came to athletic training. However, they also had many drawbacks. 

The Soviet System

The Soviet approach prescribed tremendous volume and used a form of heavy-effort training. The athlete's main movements, such as cleans, snatches, squats, etc., would rarely go over 100% maximal effort, which is not optimal as the Central Nervous System needs to be taxed maximally.

According to Zatsiorsky (2020), if you want to get stronger, you should use methods of maximal effort. Methods such as lifting a weight as heavily as possible improve how your muscles and central nervous system work together. 

Your body adapts to the load you put on it, so a maximal effort (such as executing a one-rep maximal deadlift) is the best way to make the most strength gains. This approach also helps reduce CNS inhibition so you can activate the maximum number of muscle units with the best frequency and technique.

When nearing a contest, the Soviet system would reduce the number of strategic exercises that developed the most strength gains. Strategic exercises are another name for accessory exercises. An example is banded hamstring curls, good mornings, and sled dragging, improving lower body strength. 

If you take out exercises like accessory lifts and only focus on the classical lifts (Cleans, Snatch, Power cleans, Overhead press), it can be hard to keep progressing, and weaknesses can come back. That's because the exercises and stimulus that helped you get stronger are no longer in your training routine. 

The Bulgarian System

The Bulgarian weightlifting system was created to win world weightlifting medals and is very intense. They trained junior and senior teams under one head coach, so there were slight differences in the training system. 

They focused on body structure and the ability to lift maximum weight in multiple workouts daily with a short break. This approach helped them win gold medals in Olympic Weightlifting, but it was also very demanding and caused many injuries and burnout.

Read more on the conjugate system.

Louie's Synthesis:

The Westside Barbell Conjugate System

Louie combined these two training systems with a Soviet speed training method that allows one to move non-maximal loads with the highest attainable velocity (Dynamic Effort Method). This combination allowed his athletes to capitalize on both system's benefits while minimizing their negative aspects. This is the birth of the Westside Barbell Conjugate System.

Blending the systems

Westside's method includes the Bulgarian system of maxing out 100% on the main movement on each max effort day. The difference is that instead of keeping the same lifts for weeks or months, it rotates through different types of maximal-effort exercises weekly. 

This rotation allows an individual to lift maximally without suffering any burnout. At Westside Barbell, usually, they would rotate back to test the same exercise every nine weeks to assess desired long-term progress.

The main movement, such as squats, bench, and deadlifts account for roughly 20% of the total workout. After this movement, an aspect of the Soviet system came into play with the repeated effort method applied through special exercises, also known as accessory work. 

At this stage, the repetition method/repeated effort method is selected to guide sets, reps, and volume. The exercise selection and intensity are vital to attaining and surpassing goals while minimizing the risk of injury, as they account for nearly 80% of the total workout. 

Read more about Louie's conjugate system journey.


Lets Recap

We have established that the Conjugate Method is a strength training system combining three training methods from two of the most successful training systems created. 

These training methods individually have a specific objective to complete but are incredibly synergistic to overall strength development when combined in a weekly rotation. The methods are as follows:

Maximal Effort Method

To lift a maximum load or exercise against maximal resistance. (Science and Practice of Strength Training)


Cambered bar good mornings: This exercise targets the lower back and hamstrings and involves using a unique cambered bar to perform good mornings, where you hinge forward at the hips and lift the barbell off the ground with your back muscles.

Read more about goodmornings.

Safety squat bar box squats: This exercise involves performing box squats with a safety squat bar, which has a unique design that shifts the weight forward and requires more effort from the lower back and core muscles.

Read more on safety squat bar exercise variations.

Floor press: This exercise is a variation of the bench press, where you lie on the floor and press the barbell from a dead stop position, which removes the stretch reflex and requires you to use more explosive strength to lift the weight.

Read more on bench press variations.

Axle deadlifts: Axle deadlifts are similar to regular deadlifts, but instead of using a barbell, a thicker and heavier bar, similar in dimension to a truck axle, is used. This creates a more significant challenge and can help develop a stronger grip.

Read more on the deadlift.

Dynamic Effort Method

To lift a non-maximal load with the highest attainable speed. 

(Science and Practice of Strength Training)


Band-resisted squats: A band-resisted box squat improves explosive power and speed in the muscles used in the squat. Resistance bands attached to the barbell make the lift more challenging, which develops explosive power through the entire range of motion. The exercise also helps to train proper form and technique, which can help avoid injury.

Read more on speed strength.

Band-resisted bench press: A band-resisted speed bench is a training technique used to improve explosive power and speed in the muscles used in the bench press. Resistance bands attached to the barbell make the exercise more challenging as the lifter presses the weight off their chest. This extra challenge helps improve power and speed throughout the range of motion.

Read more on speed bench workouts.

Band-resisted deadlift: A band-resisted deadlift helps increase explosive strength and speed in the muscles used in the deadlift. Resistance bands attached to the barbell make the exercise more challenging, developing explosive power through the entire range of motion. This translates to increased strength and performance in the deadlift. The exercise also provides accommodating resistance, making it more difficult at the top of the lift, where the resistance is greatest.

Read more on band-resisted deadlifts.

Repeated Effort Method

To lift a non-maximal load to failure. The muscles develop the maximum force possible during the final repetitions in a fatigued state. 

(Science and Practice of Strength Training)


Dips: Perform multiple sets of as many reps as possible, taking short rest periods between sets. Use different variations, such as weighted or assisted dips, and implement accommodating resistance, such as bands or chains, to increase the difficulty and build more strength and endurance in the upper body.

Read more on bench press tips.

Sled drags: Perform multiple sets of 60 yards with a moderate weight, taking short rest periods between sets. Vary the types of sled drags you perform, such as forward or backward drags, and use a harness or other implements to add variety and challenge to the exercise.

Read more on sled training.

Tricep Extensions: Perform multiple sets of 12-15 reps with a moderate weight, taking short rest periods between sets. Use different implements, such as dumbbells or a cable machine, and vary the grip and hand positions to target other areas of the tricep muscles.

Read more on arm training.

Barbell rows: Perform multiple sets of 8-12 reps with a moderate weight, taking short rest periods between sets. Vary the grip width and implement accommodating resistance, such as bands or chains, to increase the challenge and stimulate muscle fibers.

Read more on barbell rows


Piecing it together

When structured correctly, this combination of methods will ensure you gain strength, reduce weakness, and adjust physical conditioning to the level required to attain goals while avoiding accommodation (training regression due to overuse). 

The next step is to show you how it all works together.

How does The Conjugate Method work?

General Structure 

The Conjugate Method "generally" based on four essential days. I use the word "generally" because sometimes training restraints for athletes may allow them to have 2 or 3 days available for training which requires a modified version of the method. 

For simplicity, the structure we are talking about is the original 4-day training split.

Day 1 = Maximal Effort Lower + Repeated Effort Method

Objective: To increase lower body absolute strength by working up to a single maximal effort exercise. The remainder of the workout decreases weaknesses in lagging pivotal performance muscles or muscle groups via the repeated effort method. It also pays attention to injury mitigation within the joints via specific warm-up and cool-down exercises. 

Day 2 = Maximal Effort Upper + Repeated Effort Method

Objective: To increase upper body absolute strength by working up to a single maximal effort exercise. The remainder of the workout decreases weaknesses in lagging pivotal performance muscles or muscle groups via the repeated effort method. It also pays attention to injury mitigation within the joints via specific warm-up and cool-down exercises. 

Interpretation of Max Effort Day: 

You need to work on lifting the heaviest weight possible to become stronger, as absolute strength and maximal effort training go hand in hand due to their positive effects on the Central Nervous System(CNS). 

The CNS acts as a regulator of force output(strength), so it needs a significant load input via heavy weight to increase its effectiveness. The more effective your CNS, the greater the chance of attaining physical goals becomes. 

It is also important to note that absolute strength is the catalyst for all strength development. For instance, a marathon runner would benefit hugely from max effort day as it would increase the threshold of endurance development.

Day 3 = Dynamic Effort Lower (D.E.L) + Repeated Effort Method

Objective: To increase a fast rate of force development within the lower body via lifting submaximal weight at maximal intent. These exercises (squat & deadlift variations) usually involve a form of *accommodating resistance for optimal speed development. 

The remainder of the workout decreases weaknesses in conditioning and lagging pivotal performance muscles or muscle groups via the repeated effort method. It also pays attention to injury mitigation within the joints via specific warm-up and cool-down exercises. 

Day 4 = Dynamic Effort Upper (D.E.U) + Repeated Effort Method

Objective: To increase a fast rate of force development within the upper body via lifting submaximal weight at maximal intent. These exercises (bench & overhead press variations) usually involve *accommodating resistance for optimal speed development and are performed via a 3-week pendulum wave. 

The remainder of the workout decreases weaknesses in conditioning and lagging pivotal performance muscles or muscle groups via the repeated effort method. It also pays attention to injury mitigation within the joints via specific warm-up and cool-down exercises.  

Interpretation of Dynamic Effort Day:

The objectives mentioned above are a very complicated way of saying the goal is to lift the main movements as fast as possible against bands or chains while increasing the weight weekly for three weeks before changing the exercise and starting over again.

Maximally accelerating through a dynamic effort exercise is another way of stimulating the CNS. It builds a fast rate of force development which is very important as it helps with the speed at which you access/display a specific strength for a given task. It is also an excellent opportunity to work on technique as you lift lighter weights than on maximal effort day.

The Three-Week Pendulum Wave

Louie Simmons's research found that improvements in speed and strength tend to plateau after three weeks. To avoid this, he developed a speed strength training system that follows a three-week cycle in which the weight used with bands, chains, or both progressively increase each week. After the third week, the load is decreased or changed, and a new 3-week cycle starts. 

Read more on the pendulum wave.

This wave has specific increasing weight percentages that generate enough volume(sets x reps x weight) to maintain or improve current strength levels and speed development while avoiding accommodation (training regression due to overuse). 

The main movements are squat, bench, and deadlift variations. Their submaximal weight selection comes from a corresponding one-rep maximal (1RM) personal record from a previous M.E. day. 

An example of it is as follows:

*Bar weight: refers to the weight of the barbell, including any weight plates added to it. To obtain 50%, 55%, or 60% of the bar weight, you need to reduce the maximum weight you can lift by 50%, 55%, or 60%, respectively.

**Accommodating Resistance: refers to adding bands and chains to exercises to remove the advantage of mechanical leverage, allowing you to develop maximal tension/force production throughout a full range of motion. 

1RM Box Squat = 500lbs

Week 1: 

  • 50% *Bar Weight plus 25%** Accommodating Resistance
  • Example: 250lbs of weight on the bar plus 125lbs in Band Tension or Chains

Week 2: 

  • 55% Bar Weight plus 25% Accommodating Resistance
  • Example: 275lbs of weight on the bar plus 125lbs in Band Tension or Chains

Week 3: 

  • 60% Bar Weight plus 25% Accommodating Resistance
  • Example: 300lbs of weight on the bar plus 125lbs in Band Tension or Chains

On week 4, select a new D.E. main movement.

1RM Safet Bar Box Squat = 400lbs

Week 4: 

  • 50% Bar Weight plus 25% Accommodating Resistance
  • Example: 200lbs of weight on the bar plus 100lbs in Band Tension or Chains

Week 5: 

  • 55% Bar Weight plus 25% Accommodating Resistance
  • Example: 220lbs of weight on the bar plus 100lbs in Band Tension or Chains

Week 6: 

  • 60% Bar Weight plus 25% Accommodating Resistance
  • Example: 240lbs of weight on the bar plus 100lbs in Band Tension or Chains

The design of the dynamic effort wave comes from the work of sequence wave loading by soviet scientists Vladimir Zatsiorsky, Yuri Verkoshanski, A.S. Perilipin, and many more. However, Prelipin published data on how many lifts/sets in one workout, at what percent of the maximal effort should be used, and the repetitions per set you should follow. 

Is it the best way to train?

Westside Barbell is different than most in that it is an athlete-over-profit company. It is in our best interests to ensure we have the most effective training system, as our athletes, coaches, and followers' success depends on accurate and effective methods.

We read and discuss all relevant strength training information with athletes and coaches daily. While our team sleuths through various journals and textbooks, making sure we are up to date on as much information as we can process effectively.

Our data, results, and experience suggest it is still the most adaptable objective system available. The conjugate method provides freedom to rotate in some of the best aspects of other training methods, exercises, and periodization styles when necessary. 

More importantly, when done correctly, this training system is unrivaled in providing an individual with the maximum opportunity for skill acquisition while reducing injury risk caused by lack of capacity.

Possible drawbacks

The Conjugate method is a way of training, and it is by no means the only way of training. Many athletes and coaches have succeeded with other training and more straightforward periodization methods. 

We know that conjugate training is non-linear and feedback dependent, making this system hard to grasp or to program for large groups in a timely fashion. It can also confuse novices as it causes paralysis by analysis due to an abundance of choice and information.

However, the juice is well worth the squeeze as the success and longevity in training are, as said above, unrivaled.

What key terms and definitions should I know?

When entering the culture of Westside Barbell and the Conjugate Method of training, there are many terms that newcomers will need to understand and digest our educational content.

Below is an ever-evolving glossary of terms that will help guide you through our blogs, books, and podcasts. If there is a term you need further guidance on or don't see here, please drop a comment below to let us know.

Workout Gym terms 

Reps- The word Reps is short for Repetitions. Reps are the number of times a movement is repeated in a single exercise set. If you are to do two reps in a squat, you will squat down and up twice. 

  • Sets- A set is the group of reps without stopping. If you are doing 12 sets of 2 reps, you will do the two reps (1 set) 12 times. It is written out as sets x reps (12 x 2).
  • Super Set- A superset is when you do a set of one exercise, and after you complete that set, you perform another exercise right after it. You will do the two exercises back-to-back with no rest in between. It is written out with a letter after the number (ex: 3a “exercise” & 3b “exercise”). 
  • Top Set- A top set is going heavier and heavier until you have reached the heaviest weight you can complete for a single set of reps.
  • Spotting- Spotting is when someone helps the lifter as they perform an exercise to protect the athlete. 
  • Box height- Box height is how tall the box is. If you are to jump on a 36” box, then the box height is 36’ tall. 
  • Band Tension- Band tension is the amount of weight the band's places on the barbell. The tension the bands have will depend on the athlete's height and how they are wrapped around the post or peg to the barbell.  
  • Accessory Exercise- Accessory exercises are the exercises that follow after the first main exercise. 
  • Handout - A handout is when the spotter standing above the athlete’s head in the bench press assists the athlete as they lift the bar up and out of the rack so he can bench press.
  • PR- PR stands for Personal Record. It is when an athlete passes a previous record with the most weight he has lifted, the most reps he performed with that exercise, or the fastest time he has ran.
  • Compound Movement- A compound movement is an exercise that uses more than one muscle group at a time. A squat is a compound exercise because it uses more than one muscle.
  • Isolate Movement- An isolated movement is when you do a movement to target a single muscle without other muscles supporting it. 
  • Intensity- Intensity is the percentage of an athlete's rep max. High intensity would be the heaviest weight while low intensity would be lighter weight based on the athlete's one rep max. 
  • Rest Period- The rest period is the time dedicated to recovery between the end of one set and the beginning of a new set. 
  • Drop Set- A drop set is when you complete the reps of an exercise until you can’t do any more reps. Then you decrease the weight and complete reps until you can’t do any more again. 
  • Concentric- The concentric part of a lift is when the muscle shortens because you contract or squeeze the muscle. An example of this is when you bring the weight closer to you in a bicep curl. 
  • Eccentric- The eccentric part of a lift is when the muscle lengthens. An example of this is when you lower the hands, so the biceps stretch in a bicep curl. 
  • Deficit Deadlift- A deficit deadlift is a deadlift while you stand on an elevated surface (mats, wood platform, etc) that increases the distance from the bottom of your feet to the floor. 
  • Rack Pull- A rack pull is done inside a squat rack with the barbell resting on the safety pipes. The safety pin and pipes are set in a specific hole in the power rack. A Pin 3 deadlift or pin 3 rack pull would be done with the pin and pipe safeties in the 3rd hole from the bottom and the barbell resting on top of them. 
  • Pin Press- A pin press starts the same way you would perform a regular bench press with one exception. Instead of lowering the barbell to touch the chest, you will lower the barbell under control to a dead stop on the safeties. Then from that position, you will raise it back up. 
  • Snatch Grip- A snatch grip is when the hands grip the bar at a much wider width. You should place the hands at a width that will place the barbell in the hip's crease when standing up at arm's length. 
  • Sumo Stance- A sumo stance is wider than a traditional shoulder-width stance. This is used for deadlifts and squats when the shins are vertical, toes slightly angled out, and pushing the feet outward to the side. 
  • Conventional Stance- A Conventional stance is when the athlete is standing with the feet hip-width apart. 
  • Brace- The term brace describes how to breathe into the belly and contract the muscles around the spine, creating Intraabdominal pressure. You want to keep tension throughout the torso contracting the muscles around the spine to stabilize the spine and torso. 
  • Execute- The term execute is used to describe how to perform the movement. One example is in telling an athlete to execute the lift with maximal speed. 
  • Plyometrics- These are exercises or training drills used to produce an overload of isometric-type muscle action that invokes the muscles' stretch reflex.
  • Micro- The definition of micro is extremely small or short. With training, micro can be used to describe a training cycle that is one week in length. It can also be used to look at the performance from a micro level assessing the small things that matter, such as joint training. 
  • Macro- The definition of macro is a large scale, overall. In terms of training, a macro can be a training period lasting 6 months to 4 years for an Olympic cycle. 
  • Training System- A training system is the principles and beliefs used to organize and dictate training methods. A coach may use specific training methods based on the training system he believes is the best for results. 
  • GPP- General Physical Preparation (GPP) is a term that refers to a degree of fitness. It balances fitness for recovery and special strength training through small exercises. 
  • SPP- Specialized Physical Preparation (SPP) is the ability to perform a specific or series of movements. SPP concentrates on exercises that are more specific to the sport. 
  • Training Partner- A training partner trains with you, helps and shares knowledge during training. 
  • 1,2” Matt- 1-2” Matts are rubber tiles that are 24” in length, 24” in width, and either 1 or 2” thick. They are used to place the weight plates on top to make the length of a deadlift shorter or to stand on to increase the range of motion of a deadlift. These mats are great for adjusting the height of the box squat box lifters will sit on and for making small increases in height for box jumps. 
  • Chains- Chains are used for various exercises, from squats to pushups. They are 4 or 6 feet in length and 5/8” thick. They are connected to the bar by placing a ¼” chain looped on the barbell sleeve with the 5/8” hanging low enough that 2-3 links are on the floor as you stand up with the barbell. This adds accommodating resistance to the lift as the weight is lighter at the bottom and heavier on top. 
  • Bands- Resistance bands are a way to add accommodating resistance while also adding overspeed eccentrics. Overspeed Eccentrics are a way to increase the speed as you lower the weight so you can lift the weight faster on the way up without naturally slowing the bar speed down. Bands are 41’ in length and range from ½” to 2 ½” in width. 
  • 1,2,3,4 Boards- Using boards to bench press allows you to have a higher touch point while absorbing the weight through the board as though it is the body. Board press boards are 20.5” in length with a 5.5” handle and 5.25 in width. You can make them out of 2x6 wood and screw multiple boards together to make a 2-5 board. 
  • Safety Squat Bar- The Safety Squat Bar (SSB) is a specialty bar with built-in hands extending out from the bar with dense padding that rests on the athlete's shoulders. This allows the athlete to hold the hands with his palms facing each other. The bar has a slight camber, so the weight is closer to the center of gravity. This bar is used for squats, good mornings, and also JM Presses. This is a great tool for those lagging upper back strength or who have to work around irritated shoulders. 
  • Football Bar- The football bar is a specialty barbell with a rectangle with 3 different grip widths between the ends of the barbell. The three different grips place the palms facing each other, allowing for a better position to bench press for athletes with irritated shoulders.
  • Squat Bar- The squat bar is specially made for heavy squats. It is thicker and longer, allowing for more room for the hands to grab the bar. The knurling across the bar is coarse so the barbell has a better stick for grip. 
  • Bench Bar- The bench bar is specifically designed to stay straight with heavier loads and offer the least amount of flex. A bench bar is stiff so the bar does not flex with heavy weight on it. 
  • Deadlift Bar- The deadlift bar is thinner than other bars so that it could flex when pulling a deadlift. This is beneficial so that you can pull from a higher point before the plates come off the ground. The aggressive knurl helps for better grip to avoid the bar slipping out of the hands. 
  • Bow Bar- The bow bar has a slight bend and can be used on both upper and lower body training days. This bow allows for greater contact as it rests across the upper back and eases on the shoulders. When benching with it it will increase the range of motion from the curve because the hand would be lower on the curve than the center point that touches the chest. 
  • Cambered bar- The cambered bar is much thicker than regular bars, and the bar curves, so the hands are placed closer to the waist of the body. The cambered bar combines the feel and position of the straight bar across the upper back while easing the stress on the rotator cuffs. You can shift the weight slightly forward or backward to place the weight more directly over one’s center of mass. 
  • Bamboo bar- The bamboo bar is made of a compound fiberglass that creates oscillating kinetic energy causing the lifter to control the bar as it shakes. It can be loaded by hanging weight plates or kettlebells by bands to the bar and can be used for strength, stability, prehab, and rehab. 
  • Pulling Movement- A pulling movement is when the athlete grabs an object and pull it to their body. 
  • Pressing Movement- A pressing movement is when the athlete presses the object away from them. 
  • Drive- Drive is a coaching cue that is used to tell the athlete to press into an object as hard as possible. This could be used for a squat, bench press, or a heavy sled drag.



Training Method Terms


Decrease in the response of a biological object to a continued stimulus (Zatsiorsky et al., 2021). Accommodation is doing the same exercises over and over that result in your body getting used to the exercise and no longer getting benefits. You want to avoid accommodation because it causes your performance to stall or even decrease. 


Adjustment of an organism to its environment (Zatsiorsky et al., 2021). Adaptation is the body’s response to the exercise you did. When you overload your muscles, the body will adapt to what you did and strengthen itself. 

Maximal Effort Method

The Maximal Effort Method is lifting a maximum load or exercising against maximal resistance (Zatsiorsky et al., 2021). The Maximal Effort Method is when you lift the heaviest weight possible for that day in the first exercise. 

Dynamic Effort Method

The Dynamic Effort Method refers to lifting or throwing a non-maximal load with the highest attainable speed (Zatsiorsky et al., 2021). The Dynamic Effort Method is when you lift a lighter weight as fast as possible. 

Repeated Effort Method 

The Repeated Effort Method is lifting a non-maximal load to failure; during the final repetitions, the muscles develop the maximum force possible in a fatigued state (Zatsiorsky et al., 2021). The Repeated Effort method is when you lift a weight until you can not lift it. This is done with accessory exercises. The benefit of this method comes from the last reps that seem the hardest to perform. 

Accommodating Resistance 

Increasing muscular strength throughout the complete range of joint motion (Zatsiorsky et al., 2021). Accommodating Resistance is when you add bands, chains, or weight releasers to the exercise so that the weight can be heavier at the top. This will help push the barbell as fast as you can since the weight increases through the range of motion. 

Types of Strength 

Absolute Strength 
Absolute Strength is the maximum amount of strength exerted regardless of body or muscle size (Zatsiorsky et al., 2021).

Static Strength 
Static Strength is used when the exertion of a muscle increases, but its length remains the same (Simmons, 2015).

Speed Strength 
Speed Strength is the ability to exert maximal force during high-speed movement (Simmons, 2015).

Strength Speed 
Strength Speed is the ability to move heavy weights as fast as possible (Simmons, 2007).

Isometric Strength 
Isometric Strength is when the exertion of a muscle increases, but its length remains the same (Simmons, 2015).

Quasi Isometric Strength 
Quasi-isometric exercises are executed with considerable weight and include a combination of dynamic strength effort (lifting of weight) and static strength effort (pushing or holding the weight for a given time) (Verkhoshansky & Verkhoshansky, 2011).

Static Strength 
Static Strength is used when the exertion of a muscle increases, but its length remains the same (Simmons, 2015).

Strength Endurance 
Strength Endurance is the ability to perform a lengthy display of muscular tension with minimal loss of work capacity (Simmons, 2007).

Explosive Strength 
The ability to exert maximal forces in minimal time (Zatsiorsky et al., 2021).

Reactive Strength 
Reactive strength is the training ability used for jumping up and going from eccentric to concentric actions (Simmons, 2015).

Starting Strength 
Starting Strength is measured by the maximal force an individual exerts at the beginning of a contraction (Simmons, 2015).


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